My profile My library Metrics Alerts. Sign in. Get my own profile Cited by View all All Since Citations h-index 16 16 iindex 19 University of New Mexico. Sleep risk and resilience mechanisms family stress romantic relationship processes. Articles Cited by. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 51 2 , , Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 53 7 , , Journal of abnormal child psychology 42 7 , , Child development perspectives 11 4 , , Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology 20 3 , , The current investigation consisted of three waves of data spanning 3 years and is part of a larger study examining biopsychosocial influences on a range of developmental outcomes Auburn University Sleep Study.
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To recruit families at T1, over 2, letters inviting participation were distributed to children at public schools in the Southeastern United States. Interested families were asked to call our research laboratory. Exclusion criteria were implemented to reduce potential confounds in the larger study yet were not overly conservative. Department of Commerce; www. The mean income-to-needs ratio was 1. The remaining 14 children lived with extended family members e. In analyses, single-mother status and family composition were considered as control variables.
To enhance power associated with attrition, we also recruited 56 additional families at T2. Average pubertal status at T2 was 1.
Nine mothers who were in a relationship at T1 were single at T2; three who were single at T1 were in a relationship at T2. Data were collected during — Average pubertal status at T3 was 1. No differences were found. We also assessed whether families who began participation at T2 differed on study variables from families who began participation at T1. No other differences were found. Note that full information maximum likelihood estimation was used to handle missing data Acock, and primary study analyses were also conducted with the exclusion of the 56 families who began participation at T2; results were identical in nature to those reported with the inclusion of the 56 families.
Similarly, we conducted analyses that did not include children from one-parent households and the results were very similar to analyses based on the full sample. Families visited our research laboratory during each study wave.
Effects of Trauma on Children’s Sleep
Children completed questionnaires with a trained interviewer while parents completed measures in a neighboring room. At T1 and T2, children were instructed to wear an actigraph on their non-dominant wrist for 7 consecutive nights. Parents completed sleep diaries to cross validate actigraphy-based sleep and wake times. Only data from medication-free nights were used. Families were compensated monetarily for participation.
Based on child reports of PCC, two families were reported to the Department of Human Resources for suspected child abuse at T2; neither family withdrew from the study.
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The Verbal Aggression e. Likert-type response choices for each item ranged from 0 this has not happened to 6 it has happened more than 20 times. Analyses comparing PCC for children with and without fathers did not yield significant differences. Actigraphic assessments occurred at T1 and T2. The actigraphs and software packages have demonstrated reliability and validity based on comparisons with polysomnography Sadeh et al. These rates of valid actigraphy data are considered very good Acebo et al.
Medication known to influence sleep e. Researchers have recommended that actigraphy assessments include at least 5 nights Acebo et al.
Secondary analyses excluding cases that had fewer than 5 nights yielded an identical pattern of study results and thus, all cases were retained to enhance statistical power. Thus, sleep parameters were stable across the week and each variable was composited for analyses i. The Internalizing and Externalizing scales were pertinent to the current investigation and have been used frequently in the child development literature e. The Internalizing scale assessed symptoms of depression, anxiety, worry, fear, and psychosomatic problems whereas the Externalizing scale assessed symptoms of impulsivity, noncompliance, disruptive behavior, delinquent behavior, and aggression.
Six items pertaining to sleep were removed from the Internalizing scale prior to analyses. Because the PIC T scores are age and gender corrected, raw scores were used for longitudinal analyses. For externalizing symptoms, 26 children at T2 and 23 children at T3 surpassed the clinical cutoff. Verbal and physical inter-partner conflict were included as covariates. Data were treated as missing for children from one-parent homes. For more conservative estimates, both verbal and physical PCC were assessed in the same model.
Similarly, all three sleep parameters and internalizing and externalizing symptoms were examined simultaneously. Thus, PCC at T1 was examined as a predictor of change in sleep at T2 and adjustment at T3, and sleep at T2 was examined as a predictor of change in adjustment at T3.
As will be explicated in the main results section, mediation effects were not supported. Thus, while retaining our main study objectives, we considered sleep at T2 as an intervening variable vs. In both a mediation model and intervening model, the independent variable i. In a mediation model but not an intervening variable model, the relation between the independent variable and outcome variable is significant prior to the inclusion of the process variable.
Models supportive of intervening processes suggest that the development and change in the intervening mechanism over time is required to observe the indirect effect between the independent and dependent variables MacKinnon et al. This bootstrapping method produces confidence intervals of the hypothesized indirect effects utilizing 20, iterations, resampling from the distributions of each direct effect.
Specifically, seven values were recoded for the PCC variables, 13 for the sleep variables, and nine for the adjustment variables. Child sex and ethnicity each significantly influenced model fit and were included. These variables were treated as time invariant and were allowed to covary with each other as well as with verbal and physical PCC at T1 and to predict sleep at T2 and adjustment at T3.
Single mother status at T1 was controlled and was allowed to covary with child sex, ethnicity, as well as with verbal and physical PCC at T1; single mother status at T2 and T3 were not influential. Finally, verbal and physical inter-partner conflict at T2 were retained as covariates and were allowed to covary with each other and to predict sleep at T2 and adjustment at T3. Pubertal status at all three waves and chronic illness were also considered but neither was retained.
Analyses were conducted using Amos 21 Arbuckle, In the final model, verbal and physical PCC were allowed to covary. In addition, the residual variances among the sleep variables at T2 were allowed to correlate as were the residual variances among internalizing and externalizing symptoms at T3. Means, standard deviations, and bivariate correlations among study variables are presented in Table 1.
Based on actigraphy, children slept on average 7 hours and 36 minutes a night at T1 and 7 hours and 24 minutes at T2. For average sleep minutes at T1, min translates into 7 hrs and 36 min. Similarly, for sleep minutes at T2, min translates into 7 hrs and 24 min. No such statistically significant effects were discovered, which concluded the assessment of sleep as a mediator of effects. Next, the sleep parameters were entered into the model see Figure 1 to assess their roles as intervening variables.
Residual variances among the sleep variables were allowed to correlate as were the residual variances among internalizing and externalizing symptoms. For ease of interpretation, statistically significant lines are solid and non-significant lines are dotted. For autoregressive effects, sleep minutes, sleep efficiency, and long wake episodes at T1 were controlled as were internalizing and externalizing symptoms at T2. Additional covariates were child sex, ethnicity, SES at T2, single mother status at T1 and verbal and physical inter-partner conflict at T2.
Many control variables shared significant associations with the primary study variables not shown in Figure. For more conservative model testing, autoregressive effects were controlled as were many influential covariates including verbal and physical inter-partner conflict.
Supportive of an intervening rather than a mediating process, physical PCC predicted poorer sleep continuity, which in turn predicted an increase in adjustment problems over time.