Includes bibliographical references p. Philosophy -- Mexico -- History. Philosophy, Mexican. Philosophie -- Mexique -- Histoire. Philosophie mexicaine.
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Very Good. Uncut title page and minor bump to bottom and fore-edge. Bookseller Inventory Ask Seller a Question. About this title Synopsis: Colonial Mexico represents a period of enduring philosophical importance. Listing online with ABE since Our inventory ships from Oakland, California. For our best prices, please visit our walk-in shop, located at Piedmont Ave, Oakland, CA open daily or visit us online at www. The influence of Friedrich Nietzsche — and Arthur Schopenhauer — , whose thought was a counterweight to the narrow, scientific emphasis of positivism, was also felt.
Following these studies, lectures were given in which positivist doctrine was roundly criticized and new ideas were proposed. Vasconcelos is one of the most influential figures of this generation. He was not only an accomplished philosopher, but, like so many other Latin American intellectuals, also a devoted educator and political activist.
Latin American Philosophy
Much of his work focuses upon the meaning of Mexican culture in particular and the destiny of Latin America in general. Two other key figures are Caso in Mexico and Korn in Argentina. They are particularly important because they functioned as influential teachers and mentors of the generation that followed them. The first developed a moral theory based on the principle that there are two basic attitudes toward existence: One is based on the notion of existence as economy, where action is dictated by maximum advantage with minimum effort; the other is guided by disinterest, where action is dictated by maximum effort with least concern for advantage.
The first is a positivist morality, the second is a morality based on love. In a somewhat similar vein, Korn developed a philosophy of creative freedom inspired by Kant. Although the physical realm operates according to necessary laws, subjects can formulate ideals and act according to them, thus resisting the tyranny of nature.
Vitalism was a metaphysical position that conceived reality in terms of life.
Intuitionism was an epistemic view in which knowledge, particularly about values, is based on intuition. Representative of this move away from positivism's narrow approach was the work of Vaz Ferreira.
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He also pioneered the discussion of feminist issues in Sobre feminismo On Feminism , written between and , but first published in But there were also others, who belonged to what has come to be called the Generation of The year marked the end of Spain's colonial empire, yet it also signaled the opening of a promising, new intellectual movement. The famous generation of gave Spain some of its most brilliant intellectuals, including two of its greatest philosophers, Ortega and Miguel de Unamuno — The notion of hispanidad came to serve as an important bridge between the philosophy of Spain and Latin America.
Interest in analyzing the meaning of hispanidad has continued into the twenty-first century, with philosophers in the United States developing arguments concerning rights for Hispanics and debating the very meaning of the term "Hispanic. Like Unamuno, Ortega also made the intellectual, political, and social situation of Spain central to his philosophy. He developed what has become known as a "philosophy of circumstance," well captured in the famous lines: " Yo soy yo y mis circunstancias y si no las salvo a ellas no me salvo yo " I am myself and my circumstances, and if I don't save them, I cannot save myself.
The idea is that the self is not an entity apart from its context. Integral to this view is the notion that all knowledge is perspectival — that is, it is the expression of a view from a particular perspective.
The History of the Future in Colonial Mexico
Ortega's perspectivism came to play a critical role in the work of several Latin American philosophers. The thought of the generation that followed the founders was shaped by ideas imported from Spain, France, and Germany, and Ortega is generally credited with having introduced them, particularly German philosophy, into Latin America.
The extraordinary impact of Max Scheler — and Nicolai Hartmann — can be explained only through Ortega's influence. A major figure of this generation was Samuel Ramos Mexico, — He focused upon Mexican culture, thereby inspiring interest in what is culturally unique to Latin American nations.
He sought to frame a view of human beings in terms of universal notions such as intentionality and spirituality, rather than the culturally specific parameters used by Ramos. Throughout the history of Latin American thought there has been a tension between philosophers who focus on the universal human condition and those who emphasize particular cultural circumstances. In Mexico, for example, many philosophers have discussed the impact of the colonization on the development of culture in Mexico. This particularist tendency grew in part as result of a historical event that brought the Spanish and Latin American philosophical traditions into even closer contact with one another and heralded yet another stage in the latter.
The historical circumstances of Spain in the twentieth century were complicated, and part of the influence that Spanish thinkers came to have upon the development of philosophy in several Latin American countries can be attributed to the political upheaval caused by the Spanish Civil War — and the ensuing dictatorship of Francisco Franco — Many of the most important Spanish philosophers of this period were driven into exile during the years of Franco's oppressive dictatorship and several of them settled in Latin America.
During the late s and s, due to the upheavals created by the Spanish Civil War , a significant group of thinkers from Spain arrived in Latin America. These philosophers became known as the transterrados trans-landed. Seeking refuge from Franco's dictatorship, they settled in various countries of Latin America. Their presence helped to break some of the national barriers that had existed in Latin America before their arrival.
The conception of hispanidad that they inherited from Unamuno and the need to establish themselves in their adopted land helped the process; they went from country to country, spreading ideas and contributing to an ever broadening philosophical dialogue. Their influence showed itself most strongly when the generation born around reached maturity. Gaos was one of the most influential transterrados. He was a student of Ortega and became the teacher of one of Mexico's most important philosophers, Leopoldo Zea. Through Gaos, Ortega had a strong influence on Zea's views.
Following Ortega's insights that in order to understand ourselves, we must understand our circumstance, and that all knowledge is perspectival, Zea turned to the meaning of the Latin American circumstance for the development of the philosophy of the region. Zea's philosophy was also influenced by Ramos's work. The latter's existential, psychoanalytic approach to the problem of cultural identity was transformed by Zea into a critique of philosophy and the articulation of a mestizo mixed consciousness.
The term mestizo points to issues associated with race and culture, opening a philosophical discussion concerning the identity of persons who share Spanish and indigenous heritage. The source of this line of questioning can be traced back to the events following the colonization, when the Spaniards began to mix with the indigenous people to create what has come to be known as a mestizo race and culture.
The relation between these thinkers constitutes an example of a growing philosophical Pan-Americanism.
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During this period, philosophers from different countries in Latin America began to respond to each other and to interact critically with one another. This Pan-American trend continues to the present and has been further supported by the activities of various organizations founded to facilitate meetings and publications. From to the present, the level of philosophical activity in several Latin American countries has improved significantly.
This is due, in part, to the institutionalization of philosophy. The number of national philosophical societies and of centers, institutes, faculties, and departments that have as their exclusive end the teaching and investigation of philosophy has increased substantially as have the number of philosophy journals.
All of this activity has begun to awaken interest outside of Latin America, and indeed to give rise to a diversification of philosophical trends within Latin America itself. Three trends in particular illustrate the current situation of Latin America: philosophical analysis, liberation philosophy, and discussions of identity. Analytic philosophy is characterized by a preoccupation with language, a strong interest in logic, a positive attitude toward science, and a general mistrust of metaphysics. Its founders are G. Moore — , Bertrand Russell — , Ludwig Wittgenstein — , and the members of the Vienna Circle.
Analytical philosophy is often contrasted to Continental philosophy , which has its roots in France and Germany and is based on the thought of such figures as Hegel, Nietzsche, Jean-Paul Sartre — , and Martin Heidegger — Continental philosophy was disseminated earlier and more widely than analytic philosophy in Latin America. Even in the early twenty-first century, authentic Latin American philosophy is often taken to be concerned exclusively with issues of Latin American cultural identity and liberation, and so to have little in common with the analytic tradition.
Yet, this is a misconception. The groundwork for the favorable reception of analysis in Latin America can be traced back to positivism. In the s, key texts from the analytic tradition, such as G. While marginalized from its inception, philosophical analysis has provided a robust methodological alternative to Ortega's perspectivism and Continental philosophy. In Buenos Aires , Hans A. Lindemann, who had connections to the Vienna Circle, brought attention to philosophical analysis in Argentina, as the work of Gregorio Klimovsky b. In El punto de partida del filosofar Philosophizing's point of departure, , Risieri Frondizi Argentina, — offered a serious critique of logical positivism while displaying the influence of philosophical analysis.
In the s, philosophical analysis was integrated into many philosophy departments throughout Latin America. Argentina continued to be a center of this kind of philosophy. Mario Bunge's Argentina, b. In Eduardo Rabossi b. The influence of philosophical analysis is also evident in Brazil, particularly in Manuscrito , a journal published by the Center of Logic, Epistemology and Philosophy of Science at Campinas. In Mexico, Alejandro Rossi b.
While we can speak of a period of stability in the development of philosophical analysis in Latin America, there has been widespread political instability in many countries of the region. As a result, many outstanding analytic philosophers had to leave Latin America. Bunge was a professor of philosophy at the University of Buenos Aires from to , but has worked at McGill University in Montreal since Apart from contributions in the history of philosophy, metaphysics, and hermeneutics, Gracia has published in many areas of Latin American philosophy, including the impact of philosophical analysis in Latin America.
Sosa works primarily in epistemology and metaphysics and was recently elected president of the Eastern Division of the American Philosophical Association; he is active in the promotion of analytic philosophy in Latin America. Philosophical analysis is generally recognized as an important philosophical current in Latin America and analytic philosophers have the support of several institutes and journals, but there is some animosity in some quarters against this philosophical approach. Indeed, some Latin American philosophers have explicitly accused analytic philosophers of turning a blind eye to social injustice and the pressing political and economic issues that plague the region.
Latin American Philosophy
One current within the Latin American philosophical tradition that puts social concerns at the center is the philosophy of liberation. For this movement, the fundamental task of philosophy consists in the social and national liberation from the unjust relations, such as that of dominator-dominated, which have traditionally characterized Latin American philosophy.
The philosophy of liberation is rooted in the political discourse of marginalized and exploited segments of society. This current grew out of liberation theology , which in turn began in Peru and Brazil. Because of the political turmoil during this period, many of these philosophers were forced into exile, thus disrupting the continuity of the movement and leading to the creation of various distinct strands of the philosophy of liberation.
In spite of differences, however, they share a common concern with what it means to do philosophy from the periphery — that is, from the condition of dependence that these thinkers claim characterizes Latin American culture. The philosophy of liberation has been influenced by Marxist and Catholic ideas and is one of the most active philosophical currents in Latin America.
The problem of identity in Latin American philosophy has two dimensions: the identity of Latin American thought and cultural identity. In dealing with these aspects of the problem, philosophers tend to favor either what may be called a national approach or a continental — in a purely geographical sense — approach.