The increase is traceable to the growth in the use of medical imaging procedures, in particular computed tomography CT , and to the growth in the use of nuclear medicine. Dosage due to dental X-rays varies significantly depending on the procedure and the technology film or digital. Depending on the procedure and the technology, a single dental X-ray of a human results in an exposure of 0. A full mouth series of X-rays may result in an exposure of up to 6 digital to 18 film mrem, for a yearly average of up to 40 mrem.
Financial incentives have been shown to have a significant impact on X-ray use with doctors who are paid a separate fee for each X-ray providing more X-rays. X-ray crystallography in which the pattern produced by the diffraction of X-rays through the closely spaced lattice of atoms in a crystal is recorded and then analysed to reveal the nature of that lattice.
In the early s, experiments were done in which layers a few atoms thick of two different materials were deposited in a Thue-Morse sequence. The resulting object was found to yield X-ray diffraction patterns. X-ray microscopic analysis, which uses electromagnetic radiation in the soft X-ray band to produce images of very small objects. X-ray fluorescence , a technique in which X-rays are generated within a specimen and detected.
The outgoing energy of the X-ray can be used to identify the composition of the sample. Industrial radiography uses X-rays for inspection of industrial parts, particularly welds. Authentication and quality control, X-ray is used for authentication and quality control of packaged items. Industrial CT computed tomography is a process which uses X-ray equipment to produce three-dimensional representations of components both externally and internally.
This is accomplished through computer processing of projection images of the scanned object in many directions. Paintings are often X-rayed to reveal underdrawings and pentimenti , alterations in the course of painting or by later restorers. Many pigments such as lead white show well in radiographs. X-ray spectromicroscopy has been used to analyse the reactions of pigments in paintings.
For example, in analysing colour degradation in the paintings of van Gogh. Border control truck scanners and domestic police departments use X-rays for inspecting the interior of trucks. Roentgen stereophotogrammetry is used to track movement of bones based on the implantation of markers X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is a chemical analysis technique relying on the photoelectric effect , usually employed in surface science.
Radiation implosion is the use of high energy X-rays generated from a fission explosion an A-bomb to compress nuclear fuel to the point of fusion ignition an H-bomb. While generally considered invisible to the human eye, in special circumstances X-rays can be visible.
Later he realized that the tube which had created the effect was the only one powerful enough to make the glow plainly visible and the experiment was thereafter readily repeatable. The knowledge that X-rays are actually faintly visible to the dark-adapted naked eye has largely been forgotten today; this is probably due to the desire not to repeat what would now be seen as a recklessly dangerous and potentially harmful experiment with ionizing radiation.
It is not known what exact mechanism in the eye produces the visibility: it could be due to conventional detection excitation of rhodopsin molecules in the retina , direct excitation of retinal nerve cells, or secondary detection via, for instance, X-ray induction of phosphorescence in the eyeball with conventional retinal detection of the secondarily produced visible light.
Though X-rays are otherwise invisible, it is possible to see the ionization of the air molecules if the intensity of the X-ray beam is high enough. The beamline from the wiggler at the ID11 at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility is one example of such high intensity. The measure of X-rays ionizing ability is called the exposure:.
However, the effect of ionizing radiation on matter especially living tissue is more closely related to the amount of energy deposited into them rather than the charge generated. This measure of energy absorbed is called the absorbed dose :. The equivalent dose is the measure of the biological effect of radiation on human tissue. For X-rays it is equal to the absorbed dose.
Formats and Editions of Elements of modern X-ray physics [kremguiralele.ga]
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the nature, production, and uses of the radiation. For the method of imaging, see Radiography. For the medical specialty, see Radiology. For other meanings, see X-ray disambiguation. Not to be confused with X-wave or X-band.
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