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- African divination systems: ways of knowing - Philip M. Peek - Google книги.
- The Theatre of Antonio Buero Vallejo: Ideology, Politics and Censorship (Monografias A).
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Continuity and change in the verbal, artistic, ritualistic, and performance traditions of Ifa divination - Abimbola - As long as performance is confined to performance halls, performance is no answer to the problem of saving the planet from toxicity and species evacuation.
The best that aesthetic art can do is mine the problem. Within this eco-cosmological worldview, each participant has a unique role and contribution. The world is alive, animated, and interconnected, with humans obliged to serve as responsible mediators. These groups of vinyau performers who do not come into the village but hide in the nearby bushes making all sorts of falsetto sounds and various animal calls, They may make the call of the jackal nkhandwe , the laugh of the hyena fisi , the cry of a wild cat bvumbwe or the roar of the lion mkango using all sorts of devices.
Humans perform for the world out of respect for a wise elder and as a way to momentarily transcend, to glimpse and touch a totality of being. These actions are embodied, passed on and repeated anew for each generation as a legacy and obligation. The mountains tell of the beginning of the world to an Australian Aborigine on a walk about; the wind imparts a message to a!
Xuu Bushman; a waterfall teaches a Korean mudang how to harmonize, and spirits assist a Chinese Miao shaman in healing. To perform within the context of the indigenous world is to have direct agency with a community that inhabits and maintains a place. It is an expansive place beyond social and material boundaries. This performance is an act of agency that applies performance as a communicative vocabulary.
African Divination Systems : Ways of Knowing
We owe to the cosmic order because we are individually and communally responsible for its maintenance. Every person is sent to his outpost called earth to work on a project that is intended to keep the cosmic order healthy. Any person that fails to do what he or she must do energetically stains the cosmic order. To see the world means to be seen by the world. Is it any wonder indigenous masks of anthropomorphic beings, regalia festooned with animals, plant, and earth elements, and dances, chants and instruments, honor, emulate and express a community of place?
The interactions of thought, feeling, dream, and action have equal credence. To think of someone or something means you are speaking or they are speaking to you. A word, thought, gesture, and expression, has a power and spirit, once enacted that will live forever.
The porousness between dream, thought, myth and reality is at the core of the indigenous worldview and in turn, its performance.
The Silent Voices of African Divination
Performance is a reference for the everyday perceptions and events of the world. The performance of a ritual initiation becomes a marker witnessed by the entire human and non-human community. Performance becomes a community venue of agency, recognition, balance and transcendence, where all constituents express their power on equal terms. Speaking of the performative agency of the Igbo masquerade in eastern Nigeria, Osita Okagbue observes,.
Conceptually, Igbo masquerade characters are ancestors of spirit forces that have taken on material form and returned to the human plane at the initiation of the living…. The ancestors and spirits constitute a community of souls and entities whose beneficial contact is constantly needed and sought by the living. The ancestors and spirits and gods are ideas born of the Igbo collective imagination but which need to be made flesh periodically in order for immediate physical contact and interaction to be effected.
This physical manifestation of the spiritual on the material plane ensues that the continuities between the different worlds of the Igbo universe are kept alive through the masking theatre, with its explicit symbolism and performative dynamism. Igbo ancestors and sprits are able to participate physically in human affairs as masquerades. Indigenous African performance is a medium by which the sights, sounds, and rhythms of a specific place are brought into dialogue. Songs and drumbeats are not random, but rather specific to place.
Science only now understands that each part of the world gives off a specific electromagnetic pulse. To drum a specific beat is to align with that part of the earth. An awareness of the evolution of community, cultural, and environmental rhythms involves basic bodily rhythms, which in turn beget movement, dance, song and chant. Rhythm is the ephemeral catalyst, conduit, and conductor of place and culture. For Eliade rhythm is the revelation of the world, cosmology and mythology incarnate:. Rhythms have their model outside of the profane life of man; whether they reproduce the movements of the totemic or emblematic animal, or the motions of the stars; whether they themselves constitute rituals labyrinthine steps, leaps, gestures performed with ceremonial instruments a dance always imitates an archetypal gesture or commemorates a mythical moment.
African Divination Systems: Ways of Knowing (African Systems of Thought) - PDF Free Download
Every indigenous culture I have worked with has, at its core, simple rhythmic beat s —many cultures have several. I call these primary beats. These beats, their origins and inspirations being wide and varied, but always tactile, from a heartbeat to geology, the cycles of seasons, climate and migrations, are the basis of dance and performance. Rhythm is a way of communicating to the varied community members—each speaking in its own terms.
The rhythm of place is also where play occurs and by which discoveries and relationships are made, reaffirmed, and cohabitate. It is invested with the noblest qualities we are capable of perceiving in things rhythm and harmony. Rather than a materialist, cause-effect theatre dramaturgy imported from the west, indigenous African performance is an expression of complex playful movements not through a rational, human-centric sequence but rather a sensorial dramaturgy of Rhythm, Harmony, Change, Alternation, Contrast, and Climax.
Indigenous African performance presents a unique understanding and awareness of the world offering an alternative to the human-centric dramaturgy now driving the emerging global narrative of the Anthropocene. Theatre is intended to cause the gods to manifest themselves in the festival. Xuu Bushmen healers and diviners I worked with in the lower Kalahari similarly linked performance, spirituality and the regenerative healing of place, calling it N! By enacting an origin myth called People Come Out of Here they reaffirmed their agency with their place, returning to when all of creation emerged from two large stones and ordering the experience by way of sensorial dramaturgy.
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Several sets of rattles combined with the polyrhythmic drumming and three levels of women clapping. Machai led the song with others singing chorus. A few women added high-pitched birdcalls. Machai was shaking his shoulders and head and soon others joined the dancing, shaking with a shuffle step across the floor.
https://wiifratpaybe.tk The dance and song cycled, weaving the room into another space, one outside my normal sense of time and reality. Her eyes were closed and her face relaxed—she was entering an altered state of consciousness. The dance and song had many spontaneous swells of emotion and energy that pleased the group.
The dance took them to some other place deep within their cultural identity. Each rhythm, be it traditional, pop or hip-hop, is in its origins derived from and responsive to, a specific place. Complexity of rhythms illustrates a complexity of participant voices resembling in many ways a conjuring or divination. The aliveness and mutability of structured yet flexible indigenous African performance is a living embodiment of a holistic dramaturgy seeking to sensorially harmonize with its constituent participants.
The radical difference from Euro-American individualism is the communal orientation inherent in African systems—from the attribution of skill and insight to the ancestors to the goal of harmony for the group, not just the individual. Because humans are the most enabled and the greatest beneficiary of place, they are held the most responsible for maintaining the order and its well-being.